Saturday, August 24, 2019
Sunny's actionplan - Essay Example Like anyone else, there are hobbies I am interested in. In my free time (which is not much these days), I enjoy taking pictures with my digital camera and editing them in my computer. I like playing around with software available for this. It is as if I am endowed with magical powers when I transform plain pictures to great, creative and more interesting ones. My degree in Computers has opened my mind to the endless possibilities that I can venture on, and I am fortunate to live at a time when technological development is at its peak. In my courses at university, I am discovering my passions. Looking inside myself, my interests and skills point to the direction of pursuing a career in Digital Documentation. I want to be instrumental in creating digital materials for the fields of Education, Psychology, Corporate Management and Social Action. Ultimately, I see myself as a Digital Documentary (Either Photo or Video) Creator of Films with social relevance, especially in Education. My skills for such a big dream have yet to be honed to reach my ideal situation. The only personal qualities I can be proud of that can truly help me in attaining success are my passion for creating, my love for children and people skills, my willingness and openness to learn new things and my propensity for hard work. Steps to success: My journey in choosing a career path I would undertake can bring me to different directions. These directions are dictated by my interests and skills. Because I have various interests, I intend to pursue each of them to see if they can be possible lifetime careers. My love for children makes me consider a career related to them Ã¢â¬â either as a teacher, a kidÃ¢â¬â¢s workshop facilitator, a Ã¢â¬Å"big brotherÃ¢â¬ in a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s home or a toy/ game or educational material designer. As a first step, I would like to be more exposed to children to get to know what interests them and to know what skills I have to be able to help
Toy Central Corporation - Case Study Example People with variety of roles, such as those who formulate and implement policies and those monitor systems are accountable for the success or failure of the process. The findings from interim audit procedures conducted in July and August 2007 reveals that the controls over the purchase and payments systems are managed efficiently. However, the delayed production to satisfy the enormous demand during 2006 holiday selling season had also created a lag in the smooth running of the business. Though a fair quantity of this product was sold out for ValentineÃ¢â¬â¢s Day 2007, rest of them was returned to TCC for a full refund. This created an adverse situation within the firm in managing the inventory. But it does not sound nice to go into the holiday season selling with the same stock again. This control issues must be looked into by the management. The physical environment in which companies conduct their business continues to change dramatically, and it requires the firms to make chang es in their policies. Economic factors, advances in technology, and increasing global competition are some of the elements that force the management into greater challenges to control and manage liquidity while increasing sales (Preparing for internal control reporting, 2002). TCC executive have been putting efforts to boost the sales in September, the month that is Ã¢â¬Å"quiet before the stormÃ¢â¬ by negotiating with the Fathom Studios to obtain the right to produce the plastic-cast of the movie Delgo. Even though TCC had accrued $500,000 of sales revenue in September 2007 as expected while making the agreement, it had a delay in reaching the objectives. There was a delay in reaching the final licensing agreement which in turn delayed the final completion of the character toys. In the same way, TCC had invested nearly $150,000 in creating state-of-the-art software tools to develop Linux games. This decision seems to be a wrong one and shows the weakness of the control over fina ncial reporting of the firm. On the other hand, the companies who hold the intellectual property rights to produce popular games currently produce consoles and computers that run on Windows based software. Therefore, investing too much on developing games for Linux based consoles may not bring the expected return over the investment. Most of the disbursements made by TCC were for purchase and of raw materials from suppliers in Taiwan. Though all items were properly accounted, there was inaccuracy in the accounts. One item seemed unusual in comparison to the sample. The transaction involved a $10,000 payment to the International Transport Union, requisitioned by TCCÃ¢â¬â¢s VP-Operations and approved by the CFO. The VP explains that the payment was Ã¢â¬Å"a gesture of support for U.S. transport workersÃ¢â¬âa gesture we believe is important these days, as transport workers believe they are significantly underpaid and talking about organizing work stoppage and strikesÃ¢â¬ (Earle y &Philips, 2008). Though it was a non-operating expense, it shows a too much expense on the non-productive functions. The TCCÃ¢â¬â¢s management had fallen short in making correct financial analysis and preparing effective financial reporting. The findings of the interim report reveal that the retailers dramatically reduced the quantity of toys that they were willing to undertake in 2006 and sustained it through 2007. This reduction in the supply had intensified competition among all manufacturers of consumer
Friday, August 23, 2019
Alternative ways of funding healthcare system - Essay Example In this regard, healthcare system is required to be properly funded with the intention of meeting the needs of patients with enhanced medical technology and providing best practiced medication as well as treatment facilities. Subsequently, the increase cost of healthcare has been the main concern for the social policy makers with regard to health insurance coverage and growth for Medicaid. The increasing prices of the healthcare system have become a major concern as compared to other healthcare objectives. Developing countries are identified to be struggling in an immense manner in order to extend healthcare policies coverage in the entire population. The social and the health care system has been a mass concern and government intervention is necessary to improve the same. The need of health policy planning has been observed to be a major requirement for the development of healthcare system within a country. Contextually, funds are required to be procured with the aim of conducting h ealthcare operations effectively. In order to build a sustainable healthcare system the factor relating to accessibility plays an important role for the healthcare system with regard to its availability and affordability (GutiÃ ©rrez and Ferrara 1-16). Most of the countries are facing constant pressure to meet the need of funding of the healthcare policies owing to increasing healthcare expenditures. Presently, healthcare system needed adequate funds in order to meet the healthcare needs of people in an effective manner. Healthcare system obtains financial funds from different sources that include government firms, private firms, household or individuals, foreign charity organisation and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) among others. In healthcare system, funding is necessary for different factors that include implementation of innovative technology, redefining medical services, better access to
Thursday, August 22, 2019
China Country Identification Essay The company has brought to our attention that it desires to expand into the Eastern Asian market where it is believed that the opportunity will be best and certainly more than double its profits by this venture. The Country of choice will be China; location is the city of Macau, which is an established trading center in Southeast Asia. B. Major Cross-Cultural Issues and Impacts: There are some marketing aspects to consider. Our approach must be culture sensitive to be successful. Insulting anyone in our business relations for work in China could end the deal or cause unnecessary delays. It is vital for all personnel involved in this venture to train with care in the marketing and cultural behaviors of the Chinese. Culture is a major issue and the company must be meticulous with training in order to be accepted. The Asian cultures are very careful about not losing face and this is critical. Keeping face goes back to Confucianism, which focuses on ones duty and loyalty, honor, sincerity, and keeping harmony with all those related to them through family, business, and social ties. This is strictly followed with respect for age first in any of these relationships. One must never lose face with any of these ties for to lose face is to lose honor. The concept of face translates as honor, good reputation, and respect. There are four types of face. Face behavior is power-oriented behavior with the purpose of maintaining stability or control of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self. Diumianzi originates from the word mian and directly relates to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation or place in society. It is actions or deeds, which others have observed, and it is earned. Geimianzi is response to or giving of face to another through showing respect to the other person. Liumianzi is developed by avoiding mistakes and showing wisdom in making decisions. Jiangmianzi, when face is increased through others by another complementing one to a business partner or associate. Saving face or reputation is very strong in the Chinese culture. People are generally reserved, quiet, and refined. No boisterous or loud behavior is acceptable and considered in poor taste. Another way to explain this is quiet dignity, always keeping control of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions. The personnel who are involved in this business venture will need to beware of the quiet reserved behaviors of the Chinese and adopt such behavior in respect and get to know well each Chinese in the business relationship. It is important to save face at all times and avoid blunders or mistakes of ourÃ Western culture, and never criticize the Chinese or any others involved in the business or personal relationship in Macau, China. This includes any associates whether foreign or domestic (China 2010). When greeting in China, the eldest is always greeted first and though a handshake is most common among Chinese with foreigners, sometimes with the elderly or government officials a slight bow will be given. During the greeting exchange, it is the practice by the Chinese to look at the ground when shaking hands or bowing along while addressing the individual with their honorific title and surname (China 2010). Visiting and eating also have special rules. A guest always waits for the host to give direction for seating. Formal dinners have different rules on seating arrangements. The conversation at meals is light, no business, or personal talk. The host will always serve an abundance of food. The host will usually escort a guest outside their home a distance even down a street and the guest should politely resist with the special ritual of hospitality. It is customary to bring a wrapped gift presented with two hands when invited to the home of a Chinese. In China, they do not open a gift in front of the giver; this is to avoid embarrassment for gifts that are not needed. Both the giver and receiver will always use both hands for the gift. Another very important gesture is to refuse the gift three times before accepting it; this shows that one is not greedy. Once the gift is accepted, it is important to express thanks to them for accepting the gift. If giving money gifts around New Years for personal friendship, the bills must be even bills and there should be an even number of bills, and given in a red envelope. Do not use white, black, blue, or the number 4 for anything because it is associated with death and funerals. This would be very embarrassing. Unacceptable gifts include clocks which symbolize time is running out, a handkerchief suggests a farewell greeting, shoes, especially straw sandals, suggest sad memories, and do not give ink pens with red ink which signifies death. Sharp objects like knives and scissors are not appropriate as it represents severing of relationships (Roberts 1998). Dress is important, no bright colors or blue jeans are to be worn, and all colors should be neutral with business meetings or dinners. Women must wear modest heals, nothing sleeveless or sheer, modest necklines, even the jewelry should be modest and not flashy. Relationship is everything; to hurry would be a waste. TheÃ impact of our approach on Chinese business with regard to cultural differences is everything, the dress, the greeting, visiting, dinners, and showing of respect to all parties involved both Chinese, and U.S. will affect the stability of the relationship (King 1999). If the relationship is not sealed in the beginning with saving face or respect and trust with the Chinese, then the business deal may never take place or may be a very weak deal. The Chinese find friendship and trust to be far too important to rush through a business deal. Respect or face must be earned over time and never lost. C. Cross-Cultural Communication: Macau, China has a very strong economy with a GDP of 21.8 percent growth currently, is not expecting a recession anytime soon and has a steady growth rate of double digits up to 21 or more percent per year (Economy 2011). The humid weather and subtropical climate will be a great help in the special heat hardening process, which is necessary to extend the life of the engine components. It is important for us to pay close attention to detail and avoid using black, gold, yellow, red, or white on the engine components for any identification of parts used. Our company will need to use colors that are low key, perhaps silver, grey, brown, tan, or green, for any differentiation used to identify parts. Red is overused and is considered a New YearÃ¢â¬â¢s awareness. The black as mentioned earlier represents death and is not a good omen. Do not use black or red print on any of the parts or packaging, this represents evil and death and does not work in the Chinese market. When promoting the product for selling, again, color is of utmost importance and it is important to be creative. No black borders and no black print can be used, it is considered to be a bad omen or evil. The same is true with red print, it is considered to be related to death of the person reading the red ink. White wrap signifies death of the person receiving the gift and is not a happy color. Yellow used in marketing generally relates to pornography, so it must not be used or it will damage the face of the new company and possibly be an embarrassment or cause it to fail. The colors purple for power and nobility, blue green, and some other colors can be used with marketing to promote our engine components, but red, yellow, gold, black, and white are best avoided entirely for marketing purposes (Gao 2011). The advertising name should involve only two perhapsÃ three syllables with the last syllable having inflection upwards with intonation of voice. The Chinese consider this necessary for a favorable impression and for recognition of a product or service. Chinese words are often very direct and it would be best to use such words to gain trust and immediate understanding, and to portray quality and enjoyment of the vehicle because of using Company AÃ¢â¬â¢s engine components. Another aspect to show purity and trust is a picture of a mountain in relation to televised advertising or media advertising on the internet, and in our promotional brochure (Lehman 1992). Manufacturing companies like Sinotruck Group, Qingdao Seize The Future Automobile Co. Ltd., and Special Truck Company China National Heavy Duty Truck Co., to name a few major manufactures for heavy-duty trucks, to market the engine components produced by Company A would be our target audience for this market (Brighter 2011). China is expecting an increase in unit freight mileage leading to long distance transportation implying a demand for high-end trucks in the next few years. China is an excellent market for our truck engine components and this is good timing with ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth and increased investment in the trucking industry (Intelligence 2011). Currently, in China, the demand for trucks ranked first and automobiles ranked second (Intelligence 2011). Pricing of the engine components is based on production and the shipping costs for China. Choosing to build a manufacturing plant in Macau, China would prove to be financially prudent and help to keep prices in line with other competing engine makers in the truck industry for China. To protect competition in China, the prices would need to be equal in revenue as that of other countries in which these engine components are sold. To distribute these engine components in China it is necessary to have distribution partners for acceptance in the different market areas. Company A will have to build a network of distributers among locals where face-to-face relationships can grow. It will be prudent to train local mechanics for problems with the engine components that may occur after the sale. It is important to have connections with individuals in all areas of the business for trust and friendliness to the Chinese country. They see life as a group connection in all associations. D. Cross-Cultural Ethical Differences: Introducing ourselves into the Chinese market is crucial and must be done through an intermediary, someone who will give face favorably about Company AÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation. Chinese do not like to do business with strangers. The meetings need to be requested in writing preferably one or two months in advance by someone that they know and trust who connects for Company A. Plan to arrive a bit early, do not be late as the Chinese perceive this as an insult and it could cause negative problems for the business relationship. Punctuality is considered a virtue in China. It is important not to wear bright colors for meetings; men should wear dark colored conservative business suits. Women should wear a conservative business suit or dress with a high neckline and flat shoes or not much of a heel. There is no gender bias in China. About the introductions, when greeting the Chinese, the highest official or eldest will start the introductions and will either bow slightly while looking to the ground or shake hands while looking to the ground, do not look them in the eye during the introductions but do state their honorific title and then surname. Example, Ã¢â¬Å"It is an honor to meet with you, President Chen.Ã¢â¬ They have a great sense of humor and like to laugh if they are comfortable. If it is appropriate on your behalf at any time, be sure to laugh at yourself. The names of all who will be at the meeting and their titles, of course, would be important to have in each memberÃ¢â¬â¢s portfolio. Once the introductions have been made and you have been given the invitation, provide information about Company A and what is desired to be accomplished. If offered a business card always accept with both hands and look at it with interest on both sides and then place on the table in the front of the place setting o r in a suit pocket or briefcase, never in the back pocket. When giving a business card use two hands and place Chinese side up to the Chinese officer. Only the eldest officer from each business will hold the conversation for negotiation. All others will listen. Posture and facial expression is very important to the Chinese and persons attending the meetings must watch carefully and be aware of their posture and facial expressions to remain neutral. There should not be any staring into anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes only concentration on what is being said and careful glancing to notice expressions. Tone of voice is of great importance andÃ should be closely noted. Relationship cultivation is first, no agreement will be made at this meeting. When the meeting concludes the Chinese will say they will think about it, accept that answer just as they say, thinking about it (Ltd. 2004) and be patient for the deal to close at another time. It may take several meetings to finish the business deal. When the Chinese diplomat in charge invites the visiting company to a banquet, this is a signal that they are ready to give their final answer. They use a banquet to celebrate (Ltd. 2004). Our company needs to be patient and ready. In China, it is not customary to give gifts; it is considered bribery and illegal. It is only acceptable to bring a wrapped gift for the most senior officer in the company after the business deal is complete and state that the gift is from your company and that it is wished for the senior officer to accept it on behalf of their company. If there are wrapped gifts for more than one individual in a group, all gifts must be different and monetarily representative of the status for each individual. It is disrespectful to give the same gift choice to several individuals, the gifts must be different, and the value spent commensurate with the associate receiving the gift. If meeting over dinner our members must remember to wait until the host shows them to their personal seat, and recognize that the executive who called the dinner will be paying for all, no one is going Ã¢â¬Å"Dutch.Ã¢â¬ Remember to talk about whatever interests them and the food. Generally, light talk is expected. No business will be discussed while dining. The seating behavior is much like it is in formal dining with the United States. Unlike the U.S., though take time with dining and eat all you can or at least make it appear that time is not important. Eating is a very social event with the Chinese, never a rush. They may not hurry to be at a dinner or meal for a certain time, but may be slightly late. Timeliness is not crucial as is expected for a business meeting. It is rare to be invited to a Chinese home. If this occurs, be on time, take a gift and offer it three times but do not expect them to open it in front of you. Take off your shoes and do not pay attention to slurping or belching noises, this is the Chinese way to show enjoyment with the food. All business personnel must learn to eat with chopsticks (Ltd. 2004). These culture differences are very important though strange to what our customs are here in America. All Chinese customs must be followed carefully to have aÃ successful business relationship in China. References Brighter, Mr. Made In China.Com. 2011. http://cntruck.en.made-in-china.com/ (accessed December 12, 2011). China, Neso. Social Norms, Saving and Losing Face. October 4, 2010. http://www.nesochina.org/dutch-students/preparing-your-stay/social-norms (accessed December 11, 2011). Economy, Macau. Macaus Economy Grows 21.8 percent from January to September. Macau Hub Magazine on line. December 1, 2011. http://www.macauhub.com.mo/en/2011/12/01/macaus-economy-grows-21-8-pct-from-january-to-september/ (accessed December 11, 2011). Gao, Kane. Public Relations and Strategic Communications. Illuminant A Source of Light. January 17, 2011. http://www.illuminantpartners.com/2011/01/17/color/ (accessed December 12, 2011). Intelligence, China Research. Research Report on China Truck Industry. April 12, 2011. http://marketinfoguide.com/2011/04/12/research-report-china-truck-industry-2011-2012/ (accessed December 12, 2011). King, Susan. Facts About Chinese Business Attire. eHow Culture and Society. 199 9. http://www.ehow.com/about_5040513_chinese-business-attire.html (accessed December 11, 2011). Lehman, Edward. Media and Advertising. Lehman, Lee, Xu. 1992. http://www.lehmanlaw.com/practices/media-and-advertising.html (accessed December 12, 2011). Ltd., Kwintessential. Chinese Etiquette and Customs. Kwintessential. 2004. http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/china-country-profile.html (accessed December 13, 2011). Roberts, Kimberly. International Business Gift Giving Overview. 1998. http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/international_gift_giving.htm (accessed December 11, 2011).
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
A Competitive Analysis Of Kingfisher Airlines Tourism Essay To research and analyze how kingfisher airlines has retained one of the top position in a highly competitive market like India. To find out what makes them special from all other airlines in India. To find out how kingfisher airlines compete with leading airlines like Air Indian and Jet. To find out what customer tactics they used to bring more customers to the organization. Content summary To approach by doing SWOT and PEST analysis of the company by looking through the magazines and websites available on company. In order to analyze the companys strategy I will be doing 7p analysis. In order to make my objectives a true I will be carrying out an interview with fathers friend who is working in kingfisher airlines. I will be doing a case study on how kingfisher airline is different from and India Airlines. I will be also proposing some new strategies which can help the organization to improve their performance more Table of contents Page Table of Content 34 Objective 2 Content summary 2 Introduction 3 About the Company 5 History 5 Achievements 6 Marketing strategy 7 PESTEL Analysis 8 Political 8 Economical 8 Social 8 Technological 8 Environmental 9 Local 9 7 Ps Analysis 9 Product 9 Promotions 10 Price 10 People 10 Place 10 Physical evidence 11 Process 11 SWOT Analysis 11 Strengths 11 Weakness 12 Opportunities 12 Threats 12 Comparison Kingfisher VS Indian Airlines 1213 Suggestion and recommendation 14 Appendix 14 Questionnaire References 15 Introduction Kingfisher Airlines Limited is a majorÃ IndianÃ airline. Kingfisher operates more than 400 flights a day and has a network of 72 destinations, with regional and long-haul international services. Kingfisher Airlines, through one of its holding companiesÃ United Breweries Group, has a 50 percent stake inÃ low-cost carrierÃ Kingfisher Red, formerly known as Air Deccan. Kingfisher Airlines is one of six airlines in the world to have a five-star rating fromÃ Skytrax, along withÃ Asian Airlines,Ã Malaysia Airlines,Ã Qatar Airways,Ã Singapore AirlinesÃ andÃ Cathay Pacific Airways. In May 2009, Kingfisher Airlines carried more than a million passengers, giving it the highest market share among airlines in India. Kingfisher has its registered office in theÃ UB TowerÃ inÃ BangaloreÃ and its head office in the Kingfisher House inÃ Mumbai. History The airline started operations on 9 May 2005, following theÃ dry leaseÃ of four brand newÃ Airbus A320-200Ã aircraft. Its first flight was from MumbaiÃ toÃ Delhi. At the launch of the airline, Dr. Mallya said that he is committed to achieving our ambition of making Kingfisher Airlines Indias largest private airline both in capacity and market share by 2010. The airline ushered in a new era of luxury in Indias domestic aviation sector with its brand new aircraft with stylish red interiors, and smartly dressed crew and ground staff. Kingfisher was the first Indian airline to haveÃ in-flight entertainmentÃ (IFE) systems on every seat even on domestic flights. All passengers were given a welcome kit consisting goodies such as a pen, facial tissue and headphones to use with the IFE system. Initially, passengers were able to watch only recorded TV programming on the IFE system, but later an alliance was formed withÃ Dish TVÃ to provide live TV in-flight. And in a marked departure from tradition, Kingfisher Airlines decided to have an on-screenÃ safety demonstrationÃ using the IFE system. On 14 July 2008, Kingfisher unveiled its first everÃ Wide-body aircraft, aÃ Airbus A330-200Ã at the 46thÃ Farnborough Air showÃ held in July 2008. Kingfishers first Airbus A330-200 was widely billed as the best A330-200 ever built byÃ Airbus. On 3 September 2008, Kingfisher started its international operations by connectingÃ BangaloreÃ withÃ London. Achievements Kingfisher Airlines has received three global awards at the SKYTRAX World Airline AwardsÃ Named Best Airline In India / Central Asia; Best Cabin Crew Central Asia Kingfisher RED named Best Low Cost Airline in India / Central Asia NDTV Profit Business Leadership Award for AviationÃ awarded to Kingfisher Airlines by NDTV twice in two years Indias only 5 Star airline, rated by SkytraxÃ andÃ 6th airline in the worldÃ to be certified asÃ 5 star airline by Skytrax Ranked amongst Indias Top Service Brands of 2008 ranking by PitchÃ magazine Voted asÃ Indias Favourite Airline in a survey conducted by an independent research firm with 46% votes compared to others Rated as Asia Pacifics Top Airline Brand in a survey conducted by TNS on Asia Pacifics Top 1,000 Brands for 2008 Brand Leadership Award in the service and hospitality segment against several acclaimed hotels, leading banks and other airlines Economic Times Avaya Award 2006 for Excellence inÃ Customer Responsiveness award is presented by the highly acclaimed Business Daily, Economic Times Indias No. 1 Airline in customer satisfaction Business World Rated amongst Indias most respected companies Business World Rated amongst Indias 25 Innovative Companies in aÃ survey conducted by Plan man Media in 2006 The Best Airline and Indias FavouriteÃ Carrier in a Survey conducted by The Times of India Service Excellence 2005-2006 for a New Airline Ã by Skytrax, a UK based specialist global air transport advisor Ranked Third in the survey on Indias Most Successful Brand launch of 2005 Under the Brand Derby Survey conducted by Indias leading business daily Business Standard Busiest Brands of 2005 ranked amongst the Top Ten busiest brands of 2005Ã and 2006 across product categories, in the survey conducted by agency faqs and The Brand Reporter Best New Airline of the Year Award for 2005Ã Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation (CAPA) Award in the Asia-Pacific and Middle East region Marketing strategies Kingfisher Airlines has a clearly defined target audience- SEC A, SEC B+ (socio-economic class) in the age group of 25-45 years of age. Kingfisher Airlines offers brand new aircraft, designer interiors, gourmet cuisine and in flight-entertainment (there are five channels of FUN TV and 10 channels of Kingfisher Radio, which are personalized). Communicate with guests at multiple touch points. They use all media of communication television, print, radio, outdoor, malls, multiplexes, clubs, pubs, in-flight etc. The guests are constantly informed of their new offers. Ã They offer tickets to theatre screenings, fashion shows, sports screenings etc to their frequent travellers (club members). Their Partners Program has been very successful. They have tied up with the best of brands across industries. Tata Tetley, Pepsi, Microsoft, Inox, Kenzo , IFB, Taj, Park Hotels and Oxford book stores have been some of leading partners. PESTEL Analysis Political Foreign airlines are not allowed to buy a stake in domestic airlines. International route regulations Closing down of domestic airports Open sky policy Economical Contribution to the Indian economy Rising cost of fuel Investment in the sector of aviation The growth of the middle income group family affects the aviation sector. Shortage of the infrastructure capacity Social Development of cities leads to better services and airports Employment opportunities Safety regulations The status symbol attached to a plane travel. Technological The growth of e-commerce and e-ticketing Satellite based navigation system Modernisation and privatisation of the airports Developing green filed airports with private sector for example in Bangalore the airport corporation limited. Environmental The increase in global warming The sudden and the unexpected behaviour of the atmosphere and the dependency on whether Shortage of the infrastructural capacity Tourism saturation Legal Bilateral treaties Airlines acquisitions and the leasing cost In the United States, low-cost airlines often operated from small airports that charge lower fees and that did not suffer from the congestion at large airports In India, however, government policy did not allow the creation of airports closer than 150KM from each other, and the old airports at Bangalore and Hyderabad were closed down when the new one started. 7 Ps Product Fleet size Aircrafts International foray Promotions Advertisements Magazines and newspaper ads Exposure at non-corporate events Participation at international airs hows Endorsing celebrities like Katrina Kaif and Deepika padukone Price Dynamic pricing model multiple fare levels Uniform rules No hidden restrictions Pricing models eight different levels Discounts provided from time to time People Backbone of the brand Extensive trainings Hospitality industry and consider their customer as guest Interpersonal skills, aptitude, and service knowledge Place Online booking (official site) Online booking Yatro.com, make my trip.com, ezeego1.com Credit cards and debit cards payment SMS/call Outlets in every major city and at every airport across the country Physical evidence Personal valets Exclusive lounge space Hi! Blitz Gourmet cuisine World class cabin crew Kingfisher radio Process Booking the ticket online booking or telephone booking or from any of the kingfisher outlets and private agencies. SWOT Analysis Strength First airline with full new fleet of aircraft Quality hospitality provided to customers. Route rationalization. Already having training academy. Weaknesses Service delivery to metros and other big cities Yet not in a high profit. High ticket pricing Opportunities Under penetrated domestic market Chances International market Untapped air cargo market Expanding tourism industry Threats Existing operators Infrastructure issue Fuel price hike Economic slowdown Kingfisher VS Indian Airlines Areas Indian airlines Kingfisher Airlines Reservation Ticket can be booked by ringing or visiting the office. As soon as waiting list ticket get confirmed they will call the customers on the given contact number Passengers can make the booking first and purchase the ticket later Ticket can be cancelled over phone or through fax 24hr before the journey By the help of user friendly websites Kingfisher airline office Authorized agents Payment can be made by the debit card, credit card, payment at kingfisher airlines office, credit note Kingfisher airline provides the home delivery of tickets and maintains direct relation with the customers. Fares Special fares offered for army forces, war disabled officers, war widows, blind persons, cancer patients, person suffering from 80% and above locomotive disability. Concessional fare to senior citizens, students etc. Fare apply only for carriage from airport at the point of origin to the airport at the point of destination It has 30 to 40 % lower ticket coast compared to other carrier operating in the country Meals Indicate the personal meal preference at the time of booking to ensure correct meal on board the flight Special meals: provided to passengers Indian vegetarian, western vegetarian, Hindu non- vegetarian, children food items etc. On board Choose from the readymade food Business class and economic class Order what you like freshly made on board Equality in class , no differentiation Low cost On ground More waiting time Satisfactory handling of delays Less waiting time Efficient handling of delays Suggestions and recommendation Reduce labour cost Simplify the flight operations Offer more transparent pricing Get smart on fuel The process of acquiring spice jet if complete would make kingfisher the larget player in the aviation industry Different modes of pricing should be taken care of Needs to change brand perceptions Gain optional efficiencies through alliances as with Jet Airways Fleet size expansion Partnering with Jet Airways and some depending brands. Appendix As part of the report preparation I visited my dads friend who is working in kingfisher and I had an interview with him. I went through many magazines who wrote articles about kingfishers and Dr. Mallyas success. I have talked with some of my friends who got chance to fly in kingfisher. They explained to me the facilities they got and their rating to the flight travel. Questionnaire As a supplier, what major trends have you witnessed in the manner consumers in India buy travel especially air ticket? How would you describe your target audience? How do you assess the current positioning of Kingfisher Airlines? Companies are going about brand activation at multiple consumer touch-points. How are you balancing your offline and online marketing initiatives? How tough is it in the current environment to build connect with consumers? How successful has been your Partners Program, a forum where like-minded brands to Kingfisher Airlines can come on the same platform and achieve respective marketing objectives?
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Overview Of Motivation And Its Theories Business Essay Motivation has been a complex concept to define, because there are many theoretical approach towards the nature of human beings and about what can be known about people (Pinder 1998, p. 11). There are different perceptions and definitions of motivation. Sims (2002, p.55), defined motivation as the satisfying of the inner needs through actions and behaviours. According to him, motivation includes various mental and physical drives, combined with the proper environment that guides people to act in a certain way. According to Robbins and Coulter (1998), motivation may be defined as the willingness to put forward high levels of effort toward need. From this theory, Mullins (1996) has come up with the definition where he assumes that every person is unique and this uniqueness is demonstrated in one way or another via the various theories which influence workers control and behaviours towards a particular goal. He also identifies two factors about what gets people activated (arousal) and secondly, and what drives people to engage in the desires behaviour or choice of behaviour. The set of processes that arouse, direct, and maintain human behaviour towards attaining some goal. (Greenberg Barron, 2003, p. 190) On the other hand, Rabey (2000) defined motivation as a reciprocal process. We will give you something you want if you give us something we want. From the above definitions, it can be observed that every author has defined motivation from different viewpoint but they all have tried conveying the same message, that is, the individuals drive to do something at a particular time. Halepota (2005, p. 16) defines motivation as a persons active participation and commitment to achieve the prescribed results. From this theory, there is no single strategy that can generate guaranteed positive results all the time, since different strategies produce different outcomes at different times. It can be concluded from the above definitions that, motivation in general, is more or less mainly concerned with the different aspects that moves, leads, and drives human action or inaction over a given period of time. In other words, there is an invisible force that drives people to do something in return. Evolution of Motivation Theories The theories about employee motivation have greatly varied over the past century, from scientific management through the human relations movement, to the human resource approach. Scientific management: According to the scientific management theory workers see work as a pain and money is their main concern. Thus, it assumes that people will work hard and behave sensibly to gain their own personal objectives, that is, to maximise their own income first, rather than putting their effort towards the organisational objectives as priority. Human relations movement: According to this school of thought, managers should take into consideration the social aspect in the working environment because employees value social belongingness much more than money. Bendix (1956, p. 294), summarised this revolution by taking into consideration that failure to treat workers as human beings is regarded as the main cause of low morale, lack of interest and confusion. Thus, the Human relations model to this problem has come up with creating opportunities for teamwork and nurturing closer relations between management and employees. Human resource approach: This approach assumes that the Human Resource department plays an important role in the implementation of different types of rewards system in an organisation inorder to maintain the employee and organisation morale. According to Steer et al. (1996), the human resource model, human beings are motivated by a set of complex factors, including, money, need for affiliation, need for achievement, and desire for meaningful work. Therefore, it is the managements responsibility to learn how to tap such resources as employees are the reservoirs of potential talent. Scientific Management As per the Scientific Management theory (1911) which was proposed by Gilbreth and Taylor, the relationship between worker and the management is based on the low trust. However, he believed that higher salaries may contribute to cooperation between them. However this form of management is no longer as scientific as Taylor first suggested. Today workers are considered much more as humans than as commodities, as new management approaches focus on the human side of employment relations. Mayo and Hawthorne Studies According to the Mayo and the Hawthorne studies (1927-1932), human relations approach to management has become the main focus of managers (Bedeian, 1993). It was concluded that employees exert greater effort at work when they were not bossed by or being closely supervised by anyone. As such workers developed an increased sense of responsibility by themselves rather than expecting management imposing their set of discipline on workers. Moreover, interpersonal relationships and informal work groups greatly influence output, in the sense that workers felt themselves to be contributing freely and without force. Mayos conclusions were that money was a less influential factor and that group influences extensively affect individual behaviour towards output. In addition to this, workers were better motivated when they were having their social needs met at work (Robbins, 1998). Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor (1960) had further contributed to the study of work motivation with his opposing motivational theories as Theory X and Theory Y. According to the theory X (McGregor 1989, p. 315), it is the management responsibility to set elements of rewards in order to motivate people and modifying their behaviours to fit the needs of the organisation. Thus, without the interference of management people would be be passive-even resistant- to organisational needs. Thus, workers must be persuaded, rewarded, punished, and their activities should be controlled. Conversely, the Maslows Hierarchy of needs emphasises towards the fulfilment of workers needs. Such an example is that Theory X may use a salary cut to motivate employees rather an increase in the salary. On the other hand, Theory Y postulates that people like to work; they are self-directed and they do not have to be threatened to work and they seek more responsibilities. In the framework of Maslows theory, Theory Y presume that , it is the social, esteem, and self-actualisation needs which are the driving forces that motivate employees. Given that traditional Theory X orientation is far more negativistic, Theory Y is rather widely used and accepted nowadays. Hackman and Oldham Hackman and Oldman (1980) put forward their Job Characteristics Theory as a three-stage model, in which a set of core job characteristics impact a number of critical psychological states, which can motivate the workers. The worker must have knowledge of the ultimate results of their work, experience responsibility for the work results and consider the work as important, as something which is generally valuable. As such the job itself must be designed accordingly to promote all the three psychological states. (Hackman and Oldham, 1980, p.81) suggested that the work should include five characteristics skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy and feedback, as shown in Figure, where the presence of certain job attribute motivates workers. Figure. The job characteristics model Source: web.njit.edu/~rotter/courses/hrm301/lecturenotes/hrm301-11. The job characteristic model identifies that adding certain elements to the jobs may alter peoples psychological state in a manner that boosts their work effectiveness (Greenberg and Barron, 2000). Thus, there is the need to redesign jobs through job enlargement, by increasing the number and variety of activities performed, while at the same time, redesign the jobs by increasing the employees level of responsibility and control. What can be deduced till now is that, the first theories of motivation have focused on the financial aspect as being the motivator. On the other hand, more recent theories such as Hackman and Oldmans Job Characteristics Model, has laid more emphasis on the content of work as a motivator. Content Theories of Motivation In this section, there are four prominent content theories of work motivation which will be analysed. The first two theories Maslows hierarchy of needs and Alderfers existence-relatedness-growth (ERG). Abraham Maslow is a humanistic psychologist that developed a theory of personality, which is valuable in the field of employee motivation. Then, there is the Herzbergs motivation-hygiene and Mc Clellands needs theory. Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory Maslows (1954) theory of motivation is one of the most well-known motivation theories called the Hierarchy of Needs (fig..). Robins and Coulter (1998) mentioned that Maslow envisages the workers needs in relation to a pyramid whereby people progress up the hierarchy as they successively gratify each level of need. The five basic kinds of needs are: psychological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualisation needs. Thus, it is understood from this theory that managers must attempt to identify individual employee needs and promote satisfaction. If they do so, employees will progress toward self-actualization, permitting the organisation to be all that it can be (Sims 2002). Marchington Wilkinson (1995) argued that money act as a motivating factor for those at the lower level of the hierarchy, since these workers are low income earners. On the other hand, those already earning a higher income and have been able to satisfy their lower level needs can therefore proceed to the high order needs. However, this theory has been criticised for being vague and without ability to predict human behaviour. It also views individual needs as stagnant rather than dynamic. An example is, needs can change unexpectedly when subject to undesirable factors such as the effect of job loss on aesthetic needs. Figure.Applying Maslows Hierarchy on Needs Source: http://www.wiziq.com/tutorial/122744-Organization-Management-models-and-diagrams-for-presentations Alderfers Existence-Relatedness-Growth Theory (ERG) This theory of needs for existence, relatedness and growth by Alderfer (1972) is much simpler than the Maslows approach. According to Greenberg and Baron (2003, p.192), the five needs identified by Maslow corresponds with the three needs of Alderfers ERG theory. Alderfer specifies that there exist three main needs but these needs are not necessarily activated in any specific order. In fact, Alderfer claims that any need may be activated at any time (Greenberg and Baron, 2000).However, this theory has a frustration regression element which suggest that if a higher order need is frustrated, an individual will increase his level of desire for a lower level need. Such an example is, an individual is unable to meet the growth need, perhaps due to a restrictive work environment, thus, his desire for rewards such as money is likely to increase. Therefore the above two need theories, namely Maslows need hierarchy and Alderfers ERG theory, do not agree completely. However, they do agree that satisfying human needs is a vital part in motivating employees. Need Theories: A comparison Source: e-learning.mfu.ac.th/mflu/1203141/chapter7.html Herzberg Motivation Hygiene Theory Frederick Herzberg (1923) had close links with Maslow and believed in a two- factor theory of motivation. He identified hygiene factors which do not motivate but cause dissatisfaction in the employee and the other one are called the motivators which lead to satisfaction, comparable to Maslows higher needs (Jones and Jordan, 1982). Hygiene factors are all extrinsic factors found in the external environment, while motivators are all intrinsic factors which the employees attribute to themselves and to a certain extent, these factors correlate to Maslows esteem needs. According to Mc Kenna (1996), hygiene factors vary from motivators in the sense that a lack of adequate job hygiene will cause dissatisfaction. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the hygiene factors are correct, and the manager should manipulate the motivators by attending to job-content issues, like job enrichment (Johnson and Gill, 1993). Job enrichment entails redesigning jobs to make them more exciting and challe nging by allowing requirements to be made for increased responsibility and creativity. According to Adair (1990), the phrase job satisfaction arose from the work of Herzberg. In identifying a set of motivational factors, Herzberg made a distinction between long-term and temporary motivation levels. The motivators are long-term satisfaction and they are essential to intrinsic motivation (Deci and Ryan, 1985), which are also very similar to the Maslows esteem needs. On the other hand, the hygiene factors contribute to more life dissatisfaction and money cannot buy happiness (Kasser, 2002). They found that the lowest ranked motivator was an increase in salary because money do fulfil the requirement of the hygiene factor, but overtime are poor motivators. Since the hygiene issues are not the source of satisfaction, these issues must be in order to create a conducive atmosphere in which employee satisfaction and motivation are possible. However most practical studies with distinction made by Herzberg, show that salary, recognition and responsibility, for instance, have been seen both as motivators and hygiene factors (Maidani, 1991). Mc Clleland Theory of Needs David Mc Clelland proposed the three-needs theory: affiliation, power, and achievement, which serve as motivators in organisations (Robbins Stuart-Kotze, 1990). The first need is the need for affiliation which is same as to the Maslows social needs. This need gives rise to the desire of friendship; prefer to keep good relationship instead of competitive environment (Robbins and Coulter, 1998). As such, individual with a strong need for affiliation is likely to take up jobs which is characterised by a desire to belong to a particular group, or a concern about interpersonal relationships at work, such as counselling, customer service, and public relation. The second need proposed is the need for power. The need for power is indicated by a persons desire to control and the ability to influence people and their actions. As such, Mc Clleland and Burnham (1976) find that the acquiring and maintaining of power is an essential motivating process in organisations. The third need is the need for achievement, which refers to the individuals desire to success and obtain excellent results. People are highly motivated by challenge and competitive work situation (Stoner, et al. 1995). In view of the last two needs of Mc Cllelands theory, the Maslows influence can be seen as it is similar to the Maslows esteem needs, with power and recognised achievement come self-confidence and prestige. However to study the need for achievement, Herzberg and Atkinson developed the Thematic Apperception Test which determines the individuals score for each of the needs of achievement, affiliation and power. For the high achievers, money is looked upon as a symbol of achievement rather than an intrinsic motivating factor. In this theory, people with a high need for achievement are eager to obtain feedback on their performance and exhibit moderate levels of risk taking (Wood 1992). Financial rewards are not the key motivator and money is a form of feedback and recognition to them. Conclusion of the need theories Table . shows the relationships among Maslows, Alderfers, and Herzbergs theories of motivation. Table Conclusion of Need-Based Approaches Source: http://e-learning.mfu.ac.th/mflu/1203141/chapter7.html. Despite the obvious differences between need theories discussed, there are several points at which the theories intersect. On the other hand, the need-based theories share an innate weakness. They do an adequate job of describing the factors that motivate behaviour, but they tell us very little about the actual processes of motivation (Moorhead Griffin, 1995) Process Theories of Motivation Process theories attempt to identify the relationships between variables which give rise to motivation. According to Mullins (1996), process theories provide a further contribution to our understanding of motivation. They focus on why people choose to behave in a certain manner in order to fulfil their needs and also how they evaluate their satisfaction level after they have attained their goals. Expectancy Theory The expectancy theory was developed by Victor Vroom in 1964 and it has been further developed by Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler in the 1968, where it is believed that there is a direct correlation between performance and outcome and the reward for that outcome is defined. Therefore, this theory is concerned with the internal processes that an individual undergoes in order to decide whether he/she wants to put in additional efforts towards a specific goal (Robbins Stuart-Kotze, 1990; Stueart Moran, 1993; Server Wescott, 1983). Vroom suggests that there should be a link between effort and performance for an individual to be motivated (Droar, 2006, p.Ã 2). According to Vroom, the three factors that should be considered when determining the effort put forth by an individual are: valence, instrumentality, and expectancy (Holdford and Lovelace-Elmore, 2001). The first variable valence, refers to the desire that an individual has to achieve a goal or to fulfill a need. The second one is instrumentality, whereby there is the belief that performance is related to rewards such as bonuses, piece-rate incentive system or sales commission plans. As such, the merit system, which is referred as the pay-for-performance may be carefully implemented. The third element, expectancy refers to the belief that an individual has about the relationship between effort and performance. According to Armstrong Murlis (1994), this theory is the most relevant one to reward practice. However, this theory also recognises that people are motivated by other different things (Robbins Stuart-Kotze, 1990). Therefore, it can be seen that there is no one theory which can explain everyones motivation. According to Marchington Wilkinson (1998), what motivates people depends on their perception of the attractiveness of the goal and its attainability. Figure provides an overview of the Expectancy Theory. Expectancy Theory: An overview Source: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadhb_2.html#Vroom Equity Theory The Equity theory was developed in 1963 by John Stacy Adams and states that people will be motivated if people are treated fairly and equitably, and they would be demotivated if they are treated unfairly and inequitably. Employees evaluate their own input/output ratios based on their comparison with the input/outcome ratios of other employees (Carrell and Dittrich, 1978). That is, they will compare the ratio of what they put in (e.g. experience and effort) and what they get out of the job (e.g. salary and promotion) with what others are getting in a similar job. If an employee notices that another person is getting more recognition and rewards for their contributions, even when both have done the same amount and quality of work, then dissatisfaction will occur. As such, the employees will behave in ways to enforce equity (Cheung, 1997). Therefore employees will seek to reduce it, either by increasing performance to output when the perception is that of being over-rewarded or decreasi ng performance when they feel they are being under-rewarded or even leave the organization (Carrell and Dittrich, 1978). In light of the equity theory, it can be said that employees should be rewarded based on their performance and hard work, rather than on their seniority, for example. For instance, instead of receiving a bonus at the end of the year, the increase in salary should rather be based upon the employees performance so that employees may feel they are being treated equitably. As such, it is believed that employees contributing more to the organisation , should receive higher rewards. This belief is called the equity norm. Employees are the passive observers and they are aware of what is happening at their workplace. If they feel they are being exploited or treated unfairly, they might take the initiative to go on a strike or retaliate in other ways. On the other hand, when employees are being paid more than what they deserve, and they are actually receiving this higher pay, they tend to lower their work level to normal (Greenberg and Barron, 2000). Goal Theory The Goal theory or the goal-setting theory was initially developed by Latham and Locke (Locke Latham, 1990, 2002). According to Goldstein (1993), goal provides a sense of direction and purpose. Goal setting is simply defined as a specific outcome that an individual is striving to achieve (Alderman, 1999). Seijts et al. (2004), found that people with a specific high learning goal is effective in increasing a persons performance. That is, the more difficult the goal, the higher the level of performance expected. Feedback also help to identify the difference between what an individual has done and what they want to do and thus guide them as to how well they are moving ahead towards their goals. Also, according to Moorhead and Griffin (1995), when employees are given the opportunity to participate in setting their own goal, their efforts in achieving them will be greater when compared to the goals being assigned to them. Therefore the control tend to restrain motivation, while the individuals involvement in their own goal-setting task, creates a more productive environment (Kennish, 1994). In general, Locke and Lathams model of goal setting has been supported by several studies which suggests, it is a valuable approach concerning how the goal-setting process works. Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement theory was proposed by BF Skinner (1975), whereby he states that individuals behaviour is a function of its consequences. This theory emphasises on re-designing the external environment should be made suitable to the individuals and that punishment will actually lead to frustration and de-motivation. This approach explains the role of rewards in greater detail as they cause the behaviour to change or remain the same. Positive reinforcement refers to rewarding a desirable behaviour as this may increase the probability of outstanding behaviour occurring again. Praise and recognition are appropriate examples of positive reinforcement. Negative reinforcement is another way to influence behaviour, but the aim is to prevent an a negative action from being repeated in the future. Such an example may be negative feedback or reprimands. According to Skinner, a third way to influence behaviour is punishment, which decreases the probability of the behaviour from being repeated. Punishment is something unpleasant that an individual tend to avoid, and as a result, employees would be motivated to behave in the right behaviour. The last method of behaviour modification is lack of reinforcement. The idea behind this concept is that, if behaviour is not reinforced, it will decrease and soon be forgotten by the individual (Stueart Moran, 1993). Section 2 Performance Management Introduction According to Gilley and Maycunich (2000), performance management helps organisations maintain and improve performance, encourage greater consistency in performance appraisal and provide high quality feedback. Motivational approaches tend to boost up the workforce in order to attain the likely job performance. (Byham and Moyer, 2005). Referring to above theories which has been discussed above, it can be assumed that some theories do consider ways to increase motivation aiming at improving employees performance which will contribute to organisational goals. A motivated team and hard-working employees is essential to the success of the company. This is because performance will certainly suffer if workers lack motivation, resulting in poor productivity. Furthermore, job satisfaction has an important role in the improved performance of an employee. In other words, high employee job satisfaction implies improved performance of the organisation. Thus, this statement signifies that improvement may be achieved by providing people rewards and the chance to perform (Armstrong, 2003, p. 240). However, according to some experts, people consider work as a less significant aspect due to the fact that the new generation of the highly educated workforce want more prospect for development, autonomy, flexibility and work experiences (Hammett, 1984).They want to contribute fully in the work environment and respond unfavourably to rigid hierarchies. Thus, performance management is declared to be part of human resource management which can make the utmost impact on organisational performance (Philpott Sheppard, 1992). Creating and sustaining a high performance organisation Organisations go into business to create long term performance and values. According to Keith Owen et al. (2001), the ability of an organisation to maintain the delivery of quality products and services is essential to its long-term success. And this ability is a learnable organisational competence. From Performance appraisal to Performance management Performance appraisal and reward systems are based on the supposition that employees performance and motivation can be enhanced by establishing a clear link between efforts and reward through formalised and particular individual targets (Latham et al. 2005). As companies move towards the complex business environment, they will have to develop approaches to tackle various threats, challenges, internal and external problems and explore new opportunities simultaneously. Thus, these companies have to invest in the most vital element the performers. On the other hand, Sims (2002), has relate both performance management and the performance appraisal systems through the HRM systems. According to Sims (2002), performance appraisal is a process by which an employees contribution to the company during a particular period of time is evaluated. Performance appraisal acts both as an evaluation and a development tool. Moreover, it is a legal document which contain , both positive actions as well as deficiency and plans for the future development. However, the main disadvantage of performance appraisal system is that there is no mutually agreed goal since job description and performance appraisal does not correlate, arising the issue of unclear evaluation criterion (Grote and Grote, 2002). As such employees are reluctant to support this system because it fails to consider the human touch and employees job expectation diminishes. The organisations culture and empowerment Nowadays organisational culture has become popular compared to earlier times due to increased competition, globalisation and diversified workforce (Schein, 1992).According to Sammuto and OConnor (1992), culture is a vital factor which contributes to the success or failure of an organisation. Organisational culture is the sharing of values, thoughts and experiences with others Cummings and Worley (2001). As such, the shared culture encourages a certain level of stability among the members of the organisation. Organisational culture basically include the values, beliefs and ideas on what the organisation is all about, how its workforce should behave and how it defines itself in relation to its external environment. On the other hand, Leach, Wall and Jackson (2003) defined empowerment as a motivational state which comprises of having a personal choice over work behaviours and processes. Empowering employees may develop feelings that may help increase work motivation. Thus, workers may develop a can do attitude that reflects a feeling of confidence within themselves (Geller, 2001). However, empowerment is often misinterpreted and feared by traditional managers, because they may lose control and respect by sharing their power and authority (Kahnweiler, 1991). Pay and Motivation Pay is an important factor which encourages motivation, as individuals utilise it to satisfy their needs and wants. It also acts as a recompense for employees diligence and commitment. According to Cooke (1999) and Fisher (2005), money is the key motivator for employees. This statement concurs with that of Crystal (1970) who further asserted that money can be a motivating factor, but little money may have no effect. The use of monetary or other financial incentives in the classic work performance paradigm is based on the reinforcement theory. Performance-based pay is a compensation paid which varies with the individual, team or organisational performance, such as the merit pay, team incentives and profit sharing (Milkovich Newman, 2002). However, studies have shown that pay does not seem to boost productivity levels in the long term and money does not improve performance (Whitley, 2002).Instead, this can deteriorate employees attitude in which they work merely in the interest of high pay. Therefore, it can be said that pay is not the only main reinforcement as other non-financial factors such as rewards, social recognition and performance feedbacks are also found to be positive motivational factors (Smith Rupp, 2003). The job itself and motivation According to Redmond (2010), a well designed job is one which is appealing to the person performing the task, that is, it should be interesting, motivating and meaningful. Well designed task will obviously lead to a higher employee satisfaction which encourages the workforce to be more productive and help to meet business goals (Schermerhorn et al, 2005). Conversely, poorly designed jobs that lack adequate attention to the needs of the workers are known as the arbitrary groupings of activities (Campion Thayer, 1987, p. 78). Thus, in order to motivate employees, it is important to implement a flexible task system to provide job satisfaction (Redmond, 2010, p.2). Nevertheless, there are two major theories which have considered this approach to motivation. Firstly, the Herzberg theory, which has addressed to the design of individual jobs as a two-factor theory, on the basis that motivation, arises from the nature of the job itself, and not from the job situation or external rewards (Garg Rastogi, 2006). Secondly, Hackman and Oldman (1976) come up with the job characteristics model, which main focus was on the content and nature of jobs. Training and motivation Losyk (1997) considers training as a key motivator. Training is a way to learn new skill and behaviour and employees look upon training as a strong element of their career development as it makes them more marketable (Niemiec, 2000). The expectancy theory presents a framework for assessing, interpreting and evaluating employees behaviour in learning, decision-making, formation and motivation (Chen Lou, 2002). According to McCloy Wise (2002), learning is a vital factor which helps in contributing to both individuals and organisational performance.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Public Opinion and Television The paper explores how dangerous such an important mass media as TV can be, if too many power is concentrated in just a few hands, and how our perception of reality can be manipulated by the selection and manipulation of information presented on TV. Introduction The following term paper deals with the development of television from its early beginnings in the 1920s up to now. My attention focuses on the powers which influence what is shown on TV and the analysis of methods they use in order to manipulate the public opinion. Outlining the success story of this important means of mass media at the beginning of the first chapter, I will then explain the effects of globalisation on the TV market. Considering the example of commercialised American television, I will demonstrate in which ways the extreme competition between TV companies and their struggle for the top ratings has influenced the quality of TV programs. In the second chapter I will deal with "media control" and show how television can be abused by political powers in order to direct the public opinion. After describing the general effects of such influences I will finally return to the example of America and analyse the social and political effects of Rupert MurdochÃ ´s "media monopoly" in the Unites States. Finally I will explain the methods of mass manipulation employed by his Fox News Channel, which are outlined in Robert GreenwaldÃ ´s film OUTFOXED. Neil PostmanÃ ´s book "Amusing ourselves to death", Noam ChomskyÃ ´s pamphlet "Media Control" as well as Klaus PlakeÃ ´s "Handbuch der Fernsehforschung" were important sources of ideas and quotations for my work. 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The development of television: During the nineteenth century the industrial revolution, the formation of new nations and the development of infrastructure and traffic had strong effects on society. Travelling became much easier and cheaper while the means of transportation became faster and faster. Even the media had to adapt to the growing spatial mobility of the people and so the challenge was to find a new mean of communication which was able to make information available wherever you are. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã First scientific steps towards an electronic media were made at the end of the nineteenth century, when Guglielmo Marconi invented the transmitting antenna, which made primitive forms... ...r der Unterhaltungsindustrie. Fischer Verlag/Frankfurt/M. Internet Sources: Burnheim, Sally (2003/November 30): "Freedom of Expression: Case law under European convention on Human Rights". The Daily Star. Law & Rights section. [Online]. [2005, Jan. 24] http://www.thedailystar.net/law/200311/05/ Perger, Roman (2000/August 25): "Auf in den BÃ ¼rgerkrieg". Die Zeit. Politics section. [Online]. [2005, Jan. 25] http//www.zeus.zeit.de/text/archiv/2000/38/200038_dreiweise.xml Sorkin, Andrew and Fabrikant, Geraldine (2005/January 10): "Murdoch to Buy Rest of Fox for $7 Billion" .New York Times. Bussiness section. [Online]. [2005, Jan. 18] http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FA081FFF345D0C738DDDA80894DD404482&incamp=archive:search Worm, Alfred (2001/March 31): "Dritte Phase". Message Magazine. Austria Archive. [Online]. [2005, Jan. 25] http://www.message-online.de/arch3_01/31_worm.html Film: Greenwald, Robert (2004): Outfoxed. California Productions, Inc./USA Other sources: Skull, Steven (2003) (2003): Misperceptions, the Media and the Iraq War: An Independent Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Survey on Media Impartiality. PIPA/Knowledge Networks/Maryland